Monday, September 16, 2019

Ecommerce in Bangladesh Essay

1. Introduction When Electronic commerce, commonly known as ‘ecommerce’, is the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the at least at one point in the transaction’s life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as email, mobile devices and telephones as well. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of ebusiness [1]. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. E-commerce can be divided into: i. E-tailing or â€Å"virtual storefronts† on Web sites with online catalogs, sometimes ga thered into a â€Å"virtual mall† ii. The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts iii. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the business-tobusiness exchange of data iv. E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers (for example, with newsletters) v. Business-to-business buying and selling vi. The security of business transactions The main areas of e-commerce are following: i. Business to Business (B2B) ii. Business to Consumer (B2C) iii. Business to Government (B2G) iv. Government to Business (G2B) 2. Objectives Our objectives are following: i. To define e-commerce and describe how it differs from ebusiness. ii. To identify and describe the unique features of ecommerce technology and discuss their business significance. iii. To describe the major types of e-commerce. iv. To discuss the origins and growth of e-commerce. v. To explain the evolution of e-commerce from its early years to today. vi. To identify the factors that will define the future of ecommerce. vii. To describe the major themes underlying the study of ecommerce. viii. To identify the major academic disciplines contributing to e-commerce and understand design of an e-commerce engine ix. To identify the opportunity and problem of e-commerce implementation in Bangladesh. x. To identify the future of e-commerce. Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net 150 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 3. E-Commerce in Bangladesh In Bangladesh there is a limited application and use of B2C e-commerce .This field is not yet much developed in Bangladesh. There are many reasons behind it one simple reason this country is not so developed and most of its citizens are poor and uneducated. It is quit natural that there are few customers who is willing and can shop in internet. It will take years to be developed this sector in bd. The telecommunication infrastructure any country affect the Internet services directly, cause it is largely depended on it. In this chapter Define Need for e-commerce in Bangladesh, different sector in Bangladesh, overview of implementation stage of e-commerce in Bangladesh. And there is some problem such as: low internet speed, no payment gateway and internet range, and recommendation. 3.1 Need for E-commerce in Bangladesh With the increasing diffusion of ICTs, more specifically t he Internet, the global business community is rapidly moving towards Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce. The buyers/ importers gain a clear advantage when the Internet gives them access to the global market, by which they can compare prices across regions, find out whether prices vary by order fragmentation, get awareness about substitute/ alternative products. Consequently, the sellers/ exporters make sure that they are well portrayed in the cyber world through websites and portals. Like buyers, sellers also benefit from increased and more efficient access to the global market through the Internet. Bangladesh is pursuing an economic policy of export-led growth. With the rising forces of globalization, it is becoming increasingly important that the private sector, particularly the export sectors are well prepared to meet the requirements and expectations of the importers and also stand out in the competition against exporters in other countries. In such a scenario, two issues are becoming particularly important for Bangladeshi export sectors –one, whether businesses are automating their internal processes with these of ICTs to become increasingly efficient and competitive in a global context, and two, whether businesses have effective presence and participation in the cyber world. International organizations such as UNCTAD (United Nations Center for Trade and Development) and WTO (World Trade Organization) [2] have, over the last several years, put much emphasis on the importance of e-commerce for developing countries. UNCTAD has special programs to facilitate developing countries to transition into e-commerce. The WTO has also develo ped rules and guidelines for global e-commerce transactions. 3.2 E-commerce in Different Sector in Bangladesh Despite being a under developed country, selected segments of the Bangladeshi business community has embraced technology with reasonable success. Personal computers and the Internet are also emerging as day-to-day business tools. These positive indicators are favoring the prospects of e-commerce in Bangladesh. i. RMG Sector ii. Banking on the Web (Online Banking) iii. Online Shopping iv. Web Hosting, Domain v. Online cards, gifts vi. Pay Bill 3.3 The Existing Situation and Potential of E-commerce in Bangladesh Internet services are presently available in Bangladesh. Its usage for e-commerce by the Bangladeshi producers to export as well as to access inputs will be dependent on their willingness and ability to use this medium as well as that of the buyers of final products and the sellers of intermediate goods and services. Figure 1 depicts the three dimensions of e-commerce. Business to-Consumers (B2C) e-commerce is practically non-existent within Bangladesh, while a very limited level of Business-to-Business (B2B) and Businessto-Government (B2G) transactions exists [3]. The potential for use of e-commerce by Bangladeshi consumers and businesses with foreign firms is much brighter, and can play an important role in boosting the country’s exports. A significant volume of B2G is also possible, as the government remains the biggest spender. Figure 1. The Three Dimensions of E-commerce 3.4 E-commerce growth in Bangladesh E-commerce growth in Bangladesh shown in figure 3.2 in the year of 2000 e-commerce business is 11440 million taka. In the years of 2001 business of e-commerce is 15840 million taka and increase year by year 2002 business is 18980 million taka 2002 to 2004 businesses is not very fast but in the year of 2005 business of e-commerce is 22480 and end the year of 2006 business of e-commerce growth is 252000 million taka. Figure 2. E-commerce growth in Bangladesh 4. Methodologies The methodologies of our survey are given below: 4.1 Identification of scope of study 151 Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 To accomplish the project objectives, a systematic process is followed. The project process begins with the identification of the project topic where studies was carried out to obtain enough information on the topic. 4.2 Group discussions to collect suggestions on the survey of e-commerce system Discuss with group member about the topic and collect their suggestions on this topic. Also discuss impacts of ecommerce in our society and business and barriers ecommerce in different sectors in Bangladesh and the future of e-commerce system. 4.3 E-commerce site visits as clients Some e-commerce websites visits were made as clients. We visited websites like www.ebay.com, browsed many products, added product to shopping cart, created user account and observed the check out process. We also examined their user interface, front end design and various category of product. We searched products by different types, t he product names and the company name. 4.4 Internet search to collect data on e-commerce growth world wide We searched the internet to collect data on e-commerce business growth based on time, data on e-commerce revenue based on geographic locations. We also collected data about e-commerce business growth and present situation of ecommerce in Bangladesh. 4.5 Architecture and code review of e-commerce site We reviewed the main technologies involved in ecommerce site, which include php sessions, catalog technology, server technology (hardware and software). We also reviewed credit card transaction and shopping cart checkout process. 4.6 Interviews to find what people think about ecommerce We interviewed people from various sections of the society to find out what they think about e-commerce and what changes they needed. We also discussed with them what the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce systems are. 4.7 Introducing intentional change to understand ecommerce engine We downloaded e-commerce site code and changed the catalog of product, banner, product detail, product image, and increase and decrease number of product show in the main page also changed the theme of e-commerce site. We entered new products and removed selling product and updated the products. 5.1 Architecture This is the design of front-end design shown in Figure 3. There is a one home page, wish list, acco unt, shopping cart, and product list and checkout option. Figure 3. E-commerce site front end design 5.2 Database Structure 5.2.1 E-R Diagram A sample entity–relationship diagram using Chen’s notation is shown in Figure 4. 5. Technical Design of E-Commerce Site The technical design of e-commerce site include database structure, database schema, table structure, php session, shopping cart, e-r diagram, and credit card transaction. Figure 4. A sample entity–relationship diagram using Chen’s notation In software engineering, an entity–relationship model (ER model for short) is an abstract [4] and conceptual representation of data. Entity–relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often 152 Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 a relational database, and its requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created by this process are called entity– relationship diagrams or ER diagrams. Using the three schema approach to software engineering, there are three levels of ER models that may be developed. The conceptual data model is the highest level ER model in that it contains the least granular detail but establishes the overall scope of what is to be included within the model set. The conceptual ER model normally defines master reference data entities that are commonly used by the organization. Developing an enterprise-wide conceptual ER model is useful to support documenting the data architecture for an organization. A conceptual ER model may be used as the foundation for one or more logical data models. The purpose of the conceptual ER model is then to establish structural metadata commonality for the master data entities between the set of logical ER models. The conceptual data model may be used to form commonality relationships between ER models as a basis for data m odel integration. A logical ER model does not require a conceptual ER model especially if the scope of the logical ER model is to develop a single disparate information system. The logical ER model contains more detail than the conceptual ER model. In addition to master data entities, operational and transactional data entities are now defined [5]. The details of each data entity are developed and the entity relationships between these data entities are established. The logical ER model is however developed independent of technology into which it will be implemented. One or more physical ER models may be developed from each logical ER model. The physical ER model is normally developed be instantiated as a database. Therefore, each physical ER model must contain enough detail to produce a database and each physical ER model is technology dependent since each database management system is somewhat different. The physical model is normally forward engineered to instantiate the structur al metadata into a database management system as relational database objects such as database tables, database indexes such as unique key indexes, and database constraints such as a foreign key constraint or a commonality constraint. The ER model is also normally used to design modifications to the relational database objects and to maintain the structural metadata of the database. The first stage of information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored in a database. The data modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview and classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a certain area of interest. In the case of the design of an information system that is based on a database, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mapped to a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physical model during physical design. 5.2.2 The Building Blocks: Entities, Relationships, and Attributes The building blocks: entities, relationships, and attributes as shown in Figure 5, first here two related entities then an entity with an attribute next in this figure a relationship with and attribute and finally see primary key. Figure 5. The building blocks: entities, relationships, and attributes An entity may be defined as a thing which is recognized as being capable of an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of some domain. When we speak of an entity we normally speak of some aspect of the real world which can be distinguished from other aspects of the real world. An entity may be a physical object such as a house or a car, an event such as a house sale or a car service, or a concept such as a customer transaction or order. Although the term entity is the one most commonly used, following Chen we should really distinguish between an entity and an entity-type. An entity-type is a category. An entity, strictly speaking, is an instance of a given entity-type. There are usually many instances of an entity-type. Because the term entity-type is somewhat cumbersome, most people tend to use the term entity as a synonym for this term. Entiti es can be thought of as nouns. Examples: a computer, an employee, a song, a mathematical theorem. A relationship captures how entities are related to one another. Relationships can be thought of as verbs, linking two or more nouns. Examples: owns relationship between a company and a computer, supervises relationship between an employee and a department [6], performs relationship between an artist and a song, a proved relationship between a mathematician and a theorem. The model’s linguistic aspect described above is utilized in Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net 153 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 the declarative database query language ERROL, which mimics natural language, constructs. ERROL’s semantics and implementation are based on Reshaped relational algebra (RRA), a relational algebra which is adapted to the entity–relationship model and captures its linguistic aspect. Entities and relationships can both have attributes. Examples: an employee entity might have a Social Security Number (SSN) attribute; the proved relationship may have a date attribute. Every entity (unless it is a weak entity) must have a minimal set of uniquely identifying attributes, which is called the entity’s primary key. Entity–relationship diagrams don’t show single entities or single instances of relations. Rather, they show entity sets and relationship sets. Example: a particular song is an entity. The collection of all songs in a database is an entity set. The eaten relationship b etween a child and her lunch is a single relationship. The set of all such child-lunch relationships in a database is a relationship set. In other words, a relationship set corresponds to a relation in mathematics, while a relationship corresponds to a member of the relation. 5.2.3Relationships, Roles and Cardinalities In Chen’s original paper he gives an example of a relationship and its roles. He describes a relationship â€Å"marriage† and its two roles â€Å"husband† and â€Å"wife†. A person plays the role of husband in a marriage (relationship) and another person plays the role of wife in the (same) marriage. These words are nouns. That is no surprise; naming things requires a noun. However as is quite usual with new ideas, many eagerly appropriated the new terminology but then applied it to their own old ideas. Thus the lines, arrows and crows-feet of their diagrams owed more to the earlier Bachman diagrams than to Chen’s relationship diamon ds. And they similarly misunderstood other important concepts. In particular, it became fashionable (now almost to the point of exclusivity) to â€Å"name† relationships and roles as verbs or phrases. 5.2.4 Limitations ER models assume information content that can readily be represented in a relational database. They describe only a relational structure for this information. Hence, they are inadequate for systems in which the information cannot readily be represented in relational form, such as with semistructured data. Furthermore, for many systems, the possible changes to the information contained are nontrivial and important enough to warrant explicit specification. Some authors have extended ER modeling with constructs to represent change, an approach supported by the original author; an example is Anchor Modeling. An alternative is to model change separately, using a process modeling technique. Additional techniques can be used for other aspects of systems. For instance, ER models roughly Figure 6. E-R modeling 5.3 Table Structure In relational databases and flat file databases, a table is a set of data elements (values) that is organized using a model of vertical columns (which are identified by their name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect. A table has a specified number of columns, but can have any number of rows each row is identified by the values appearing in a particular column subset which has been identified as a unique key index. Table is another term for relations; although there is the difference in that a table is usually a multi-set (bag) of rows whereas a relation is a set and does not allow duplicates. Besides the actual data rows, tables generally have associated with them some meta-information, such as constraints on the table or on the values within particular columns. The data in a table does not have to be physically stored in the database. Views are also relational tables, but 154 correspond to just 1 of the 14 different modeling techniques offered by UML. Another limitation: ER modeling is aimed at specifying information from scratch. This suits the design of new, standalone information systems, but is of less help in integrating pre-existing information sources that already define their own data representations in detail. Even where it is suitable in principle, ER modeling is rarely used as a separate activity. One reason for this is today’s abundance of tools to support diagramming and other design support directly on relational database management systems. These tools can readily extract database diagrams that are very close to ER diagrams from existing databases, and they provide alternative views on the information contained in such diagrams. In a survey, Brodie [7] and Liu could not find a single instance of entity–relationship modeling inside a sample of ten Fortune 100 companies. Badia and Lemire blame this lack of use on the lack of guidance but also on the lack of benefits, such as lack of support for data integration. Also, the enhanced entity–relationship model (EER modeling) introduces several concepts which are not present in ER modeling. ER modeling as shown in Figure 6. Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 their data are calculated at query time. Another example is nicknames, which represent a pointer to a table in another database. 5.4 Database Schema A database schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS) and refers to the organization of data to create a blueprint of how a database will be constructed (divided into database tables). The formal definition of database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database. These integrity constraints ensure compatibility between parts of the schema. All constraints are expressible in the same language. A database can be considered a structure in realization of the database language. The states of a created conceptual schema are transformed into an explicit mapping, the database schema. This describes how real world entities are modeled i n the database. â€Å"A database schema specifies, based on the database administrator’s knowledge of possible applications, the facts that can enter the database, or those of interest to the possible end-users.† The notion of a database schema plays the same role as the notion of theory in predicate calculus. A model of this â€Å"theory† closely corresponds to a database, which can be seen at any instant of time as a mathematical object. Thus a schema can contain formulas representing integrity constraints specifically for an application and the constraints specifically for a type of database, all expressed in the same database language. In a relational database [8], the schema defines the tables, fields, relationships, views, indexes, packages, procedures, functions, queues, triggers, types, sequences, materialized views, synonyms, database links, directories, Java, XML schemas, and other elements. Schemas are generally stored in a data dictionary. Although a schema is defined in text database language, the term is often used to refer to a graphical depiction of the database structure. In other words, schema is the structure of the database that defines the objects in the database. In an Oracle Database system, the term â€Å"schema† has a slightly different connotation. For the interpretation used in an Oracle Database, see schema object. 5.5 Levels of Database Schema A conceptual schema or conceptual data model is a map of concepts and their relationships. This describes the semantics of an organization and represents a series of assertions about its nature. Specifically, it describes the things of significance to an organization (entity classes), about which it is inclined to collect information, and characteristics of (attributes) and associations between pairs of those things of significance (relationships). Figure 7. Conceptual schema or conceptual data model A logical schema is an alias that allows a unique name to be given to all the physical schemas containing the same data store structures. The aim of the logical schema is to ensure the portability of the procedures and models on the different physical schemas. In this way, all developments in Designer are carried out exclusively on logical schemas. A logical schema can have one or more physical implementations on separate physical schemas, but they must be based on data servers of the same technology. A logical schema is always directly linked to a technology. To be usable, a logical schema must be declared in a context. Declaring a logical schema in a context consists of indicating which physical schema corresponds to the alias – logical schema – for this context. For example: The logical schema LEDGER is the set of Sybase tables required for the functioning of the accounting application. These tables are stored in a physical schema for each installation of the accounting application. Work in Designer or Operator is always done on the logical schema LEDGER. Only the context allows the physical schema on which the operations are actually done to be determined. Thus, the user can switch from one physical environment to another in a single action. A logical schema’s example is shown in figure 8. Table 1: Name of the logical schema Name of the logical schema LEDGER LEDGER LEDGER Context Boston Seattle Production Seattle Test Physical Schema Sybase Boston LDG Sybase SEATTLE PROD LDG Sybase SEATTLE TEST LDG Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net 155 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 This article discusses the Oracle use of the term. For other uses of â€Å"schema† in a database context, such as a graphical representation of tables and other objects in a database, see database schema. In an Oracle database, associated with each database user is a schema. A schema comprises a collection of schema objects. Examples of schema objects include: tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database links, snapshots, procedures, functions and packages. Figure 8. Logical schemas Physical schema is a term used in data management to describe how data is to be represented and stored (files, indices, et al.) in secondary storage using a particular database management system (DBMS) (e.g., Oracle RDBMS, Sybase SQL Server, etc.). The logical schema was the way data were represented to conform to the constraints of a particular approach to database management. At that time the choices were hierarchical and network. Describing the logical schema, however, still did not describe how physically data would be stored on disk drives. That is the domain of the physical schema. Now logical schemas describe data in terms of relational tables and columns, object-oriented classes, and XML tags. A single set of tables, for example, can be implemented in numerous ways, up to and including an architecture where table rows are maintained on computers in different countries. Figure 10. Schema objects 5.6 Php Sessions A PHP session variable is used to store information about, or change settings for a user session. Session variables hold information about one single user, and are available to all pages in one application [9]. When you are working with an application, you open it, do some changes and then you close it. This is much like a Session. The computer knows who you are. It knows when you start the application and when you end. But on the internet there is one problem: the web server does not know who you are and what you do because the HTTP address doesn’t maintain state. A PHP session solves this problem by allowing you to store user information on the server for later use (i.e. username, shopping items, etc). However, session information is temporary and will be deleted after the user has left the website. If you need a permanent storage you may want to store the data in a database. Sessions work by creating a unique id (UID) for each visitor and store variables based on this UID. The UID is either stored in a cookie or is propagated in the URL. In PHP, sessions can keep track of authenticated in users. They are an essential building block in today’s websites with big communities and a lot of user activity. Without sessions, everyone would be an anonymous visitor. In system terms, PHP sessions are little files, stored on the server’s disk. But on high traffic sites, the disk I/O involved, and not being able to share sessions between multiple web servers make this default system far from ideal. This is how to enhance PHP session management in terms of performance and share ability. If you have multiple web servers all serving the same site, sessions should be shared among those servers, and not 156 Figure 9. Physical schema In Database lore, a schema object is a logical data storage structure. This possibly originates from the use of the term in the context of Oracle databases. The term â€Å"schema† can have other meanings when talking about non-Oracle databases. Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 reside on each server’s individual disk. Because once a user gets load-balanced to a different server, the session cannot be found, effectively logging the user out. A common way around this is to use custom session handlers. 5.7 Shopping Card A shopping cart is a software application that typically runs on the computer where your Web site is located (the Web server), and allows your customers to do things such as searching for a product in your store catalog, adding a selected product to a basket, and placing an order for it. The shopping cart â€Å"integrates† with the rest of your Web site. In other words, there are typically links on your Web pages that customers can click on, and which allow them to perform some of the functions described above. For example, many e-commerce Web sites have a â€Å"search† link appearing on every Web page, as part of the navigation area Shopping carts are written in a variety of different programming languages. Some of them provide full access to the â€Å"source code†, thus allowing experienced programmers to make modifications to the system features, some others don’t. Some shopping carts run on Windows Web servers, some on Unix, others on both. In most cases, you can place the shopping cart on your Web server simply by transferring its files there using any FTP [10] software, where FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. For example, our shopping cart software – called Product Card is a collection of files written in a programming language called Classic ASP, and that you host on a Windows server. Experienced programmers can customize the system as they wish as the source code is included. iii. Merchant runs credit card through th e point of sale unit. The amount of the sale is either hand-entered or transmitted by the cash register. iv. Merchant transmits the credit card data and sales amount with a request for authorization of the sale to their acquiring bank. . v. The acquiring bank that processes the transaction, routes the authorization request to the card-issuing bank. The credit card number identifies type of card, issuing bank, and the cardholder’s account. vi. If the cardholder has enough credit in their account to cover the sale, the issuing bank authorizes the transaction and generates an authorization code. This code is sent back to the acquiring bank. vii. The acquiring bank processing the transaction, and then sends the approval or denial code to the merchant’s point of sale unit. Each point of sale device has a separate terminal ID for credit card processors to be able to route data back to that particular unit. viii. A sale draft, or slip, is printed out by the point of sale unit or cash register. The merchant asks the buyer to sign the sale draft, which obligates them to reimburse the cardissuing bank for the amount of the sale. ix. At a later time, probably that night when the store is closing up, the merchant revi ews all the authorizations stored in the point of sale unit against the signed sales drafts. When all the credit card authorizations have been verified to match the actual sales drafts, the merchant will capture, or transmit, the data on each authorized credit card transaction to the acquiring bank for deposit. This is in lieu of depositing the actual signed paper drafts with the bank. x. The acquiring bank performs what is called an interchange for each sales draft, with the appropriate card-issuing bank. The card-issuing bank transfers the amount of the sales draft, minus an interchange fee to the acquiring bank. xi. The acquiring bank then deposits the amount of the all the sales drafts submitted by the merchant, less a discount fee, into the merchant’s bank account. Credit card transaction is shown in Figure 12. Figure 11. Google Checkout shopping cart 5.8 Credit Card Transaction From the information presented in the preceding sections, we can start to piece together what is occurring during a credit card transaction. We know that merchants have a relationship with either an acquiring bank or independent sales organization, through which they have their credit card transactions processed. The section on industry terminology shows us some of the fees involved in this process. Merchants must pay the acquiring bank or ISO a discount fee based on the total amount of the sale. Likewise, the acquiring bank or ISO must pay the card issuer an interchange fee when they process the sales draft from the merchant. Steps involved in a normal credit card transaction: i. Merchant calculates the amount of purchase and asks buyer for payment ii. Buyer presents merchant with a credit card. Figure 12. Credit card transaction 6. Conclusion Electronic commerce or e-commerce is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge. E157 Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 commerce has grown tremendously worldwide. In the future e-commerce may become totally mobile based. In Bangladesh E-commerce also become a very powerful business mechanism but Bangladesh will have to overcome the problems with poor network connectivity and electronic payment issues. The problems identified in this Project are: Security problem, Confusing checkout process, Customers can’t find products, Customers can’t touch and fell a product, No sales staff means any chance of up-selling, Language barrier. Regarding the identified problems the following solutions have been proposed: Merchant needs to ensure the platform employs strong encryption for payment processing and customer data retention. E-commerce platform should always have a visible running total of purchases prominently displayed during the customer experience. E-commerce platform must support the ability to present the customer with nested categories as well as a search box. An e-commerce platform should also support the ability to attach multiple pictures to a product catalog page, allowing the consumer to view the product from multiple angles. E-commerce platform needs to be able to associate products with related and complimentary products. The system should allow all tran slation to be done centrally. My M.Sc Engg. in CSE is running at Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. My research interest areas are the image processing, Computer Networks, Computer Networks and Data Security, Compiler, Theory of Computations, etc. My several papers Published in International Journals. Muhammad Golam Kibria, Assistant Professor and Head, Department of CSE, University of Information Technology & Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh. I completed Masters in Mobile Computing and Communication from the University of Greenwich, London, UK. My research interests are Computer Network Security and image processing, Sensor, Robotics and Wireless Sensor Network. Mohammad Nuruzzaman Bhuiyan is working as a Lecturer at the Department of CSE & IT, University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS), Baridhara, Dhaka-1212.Bangladesh. I have completed my B.Sc Engg. and M.Sc Engg. in CS from The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffie ld S10 2TN, UK. My research interest areas are Fundamental of Computer, Web technology, Computer Networks, Computer Networks and Data Security, Theory of Computations, etc. My several papers accepted in International Journals. References [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_commerce [2] Tkacz, Ewaryst; Kapczynski, Adrian (2009), Springer, P. 255 [3] Online Today, The Electronic Mall†. CIS/compuserve nostalgia. Http://www.gsbrown.org/compuserve/electronic-mall1984-04/. [4] http://www.marketwatch.com/story/amazon-buysdiaperscom-parent-in-545-mln-deal-2010-11-08/. [5] http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/28/ebay-to-acquire-gsicommerce-for-2-4-billion [6] Miller, Holmes E. And Engemann, Kurt J. (1996); A methodology for managing information-based risk; Information Resources Management Journal; 9:2; 17-24 [7] http://www.e-consultancy.com/news blog/363726/whydo-customers-abandon-the-Checkoutprocess.htmlcopyright 2008 Voloper Creations Inc. 7 [8] http://www.articlesbase.com/e-commercearticles/impacts-of-e-commerce-on-business1882952.html [9] http://www.startupsmart.com.au/mentor/michaelfox/2011-02-03 Authors Profile Md. Akbor Hossain received the B.Sc degrees in CSE University of Information Technology and Sciences (UITS), Baridhara, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. I am working as a Lab Demonstrator at the Department of CSE & IT, University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS), Baridhara, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. *Md. Akkas Ali is working as a Lecturer at the Department of CSE & IT, University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS), Baridhara, Dhaka1212, Bangladesh. I completed my B.Sc Engg. in CSE from Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh. Volume 2 Issue 2, February 2013 www.ijsr.net

Sunday, September 15, 2019

La Llorona, an Oral Tradition

The legend of La Llorona Lechner, J. V. (2004). Allyn & Bacon anthology of traditional literature. Boston: Pearson A and B. Lyons, G. (1972). Tales the people tell in Mexico. New York: J. Messner. The legend of La Llorona (The weeping woman) is a well known Hispanic tale in the Southwestern part of the United States, Mexico, Central and South America and also Puerto Rico. Many versions of the story exist allowing them to fit the community where the story is being told. The story is about a beautiful woman named Maria from a town near the present day city of Monterrey, NL.Mexico. She falls in love with a handsome revolutionary Sergeant that was passing by during the Independence War of Mexico from Spain that occurred in the 1800s. They marry each other and have three children, due to the traveling of the revolution her husband is always absent. One day he comes back with another women to visit his children and pays no attention to Maria the whole visit. In furry of the event she takes her children to a nearby river and drowns them; blaming her children for her husband leaving.She then comes to realization of the horrible mistake she has done and the water takes her kids out of her hands. She begins to yell â€Å"Ay, mis hijos! † meaning â€Å"Oh, my children! † and decides to kill herself. It's been told that her grief was so great that it was carried with her after death and since then she has been looking for her children in areas where water is near. It is said that every foggy night around eleven she will wonder the area and pick up kids who are walking or outside near water. The legend is used to scare children away from water areas at night and staying out to late.One of the characteristics that we find in the genre of legends and the story of La Llorona is that they are told and received as truths and are set in a historical point of view. Lechner says in her book that people tell legends because they often endure because they convey somethi ng important about the community's values, perception of who they are, or concerns for their safety and well-being. It is very clear that safety is a concern when keeping the story alive of La Llorona to the children. I decided to chose The legend of La Llorona after reading the fifth chapter f the book Allyn & Vacon anthology on traditional literature because after finishing the story it reminded me of my childhood growing up in Mexico. To refresh my memory I also read Tales the people tell in Mexico, called my parents, and called my brother asking for their version of the story. Even though it is a tragic and sad story to be told I believe is a great story to keep alive telling and retelling not just among my own culture but to share it with other people whom may not be familiar with the story.I think it might even be a great ghost story to be told in the middle of a woods at a bong fire and if a river or creek is nearby you might even get to hear her torturing weeping noise of â €Å"Ay mis hijos†. I also had a firsthand experience with La Llorona while growing up. In a dark foggy night I decided to follow my older brother Francisco and his friends into a nearby woodlands. I had heard that they had built a secret wooden house and created a swing that was used to jump off into a small river which was the motivation of my secret following. After a couple of minutes of following from the distance I had lost them due to excess fog.I found myself alone in the middle of the woods when I started to hear some weeping sounds. At first those sounds were unclear and I couldn't distinguish them but as the seconds went by it sounded louder and louder until I clearly heard â€Å"Ay mis hijos! Ay mis hijos! † meaning â€Å"Oh, my children! † I then noticed a body of a women wearing a white dress floating on top of the low fog coming in my direction, I could say that is where I developed my talent as a runner because I made it back to my house in a flas h. After that I never wondered the woods alone at nights and respected the legend of La Llorona.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Go Between and Spies

â€Å"THE MAIN CHARACTERS IN THE GO-BETWEEN AND SPIES ARE SOCIALLY OPRRESSED ARE SOCIALLY OPPRESSSED† How far do you agree with this statement? Social Oppression is a main theme explored throughout the two tragic novels, The Go-Between and Spies. Throughout the novels, L. P. Hartley and Michael Frayn successfully convey the idea, through the use of their main characters, the effects of social oppression and class divide. Using many techniques they show how class and oppression had power over the people of the Victorian era.And even after the turn of the century, People were still trapped in the shadows of the past era. Both novels are told as flashbacks taking us through the lives of two main protagonists. The climax of both novels lead to the death of two male characters due to oppression. This gives us the idea that men were under greater pressure from social oppression. Considering, Marian and Ted are caught together ‘two bodies moving like one' in the squalid outhous e but yet only Ted takes his life. Leo, being‘acutely aware of social inferiority’ swings to the extreme opposite as he aspires to be a member of the hall.Leo, ‘a foreigner in the world of emotions’, a character so imaginative and sensitive gets invited into the world of Brandham hall in the summer of 1900. With Marcus thinking he was like them from the sophisticated sound of his home ‘Court Place’. He sees himself as lower class and a mere mortal among gods and goddesses. He characterises the members of the hall as figures of the zodiac. Marian is the ‘virgin of the zodiac’ ‘pure and innocent'. To him she is ‘the key to the whole pattern, the climax, the coping-stone, the goddess'. He‘insisted on thinking of them as angels’ no matter what because they ‘belonged to the zodiac’.Leo, aware of the social difference, feels like a ‘misfit’ among ‘these smart rich people’. H e is determined to keep his class a secret even though Mrs Maudsley had ‘the ability to fix you like a pinned butterfly with her gaze’. He overlooks the authentic care of his own mother and comments that she would be ‘socially unacceptable ; she would make a bloomer’ and prepares ‘to bear the humiliation’ by himself. Leo being so young, had no knowledge of the events and situation around them. This lack of knowledge and naivety makes him lost in a sophisticated world of adults and he finds his way to destruction.Leo, with ‘the weather defying him’, after he learns from Marcus that ‘only cads wear their school clothes in the holidays'. He starts to think of clothes as badges of social status and takes an offer from Marian to ‘take him to Norwich tomorrow and get him a new outfit'. This makes more highly aware of his social inferiority as he has ‘only fifteen shillings and eight pence half penny’ as she adds ‘that doesn’t matter,’ ‘we’ve got some’. This opens way for Marian to take advantage of Leo’s malleability and he becomes ‘Mercury’ for Ted and Marian as he gets involved with the illicit love affair.Leo admits he’s a ‘super snob’ and this snobbish, naive and bigoted character failed to allow him realise the danger of his work until it’s rather too late and the harm is already done. He fails to realise what ‘spooning’ is due to his lack of knowledge he could only have the thought of ‘Ted Burgees as her spooning partner'. He gets a ‘green suit’ and a ‘green bike’ as Marian felt ‘green is his true colour ’and is called a ‘shylock’. After all these he still fails to realise he’s been mocked but rather still seeks for adventure thinking of himself as a ‘figure of fun'. The disastrous ending is caused by Leo's naivety a nd lack of knowledge.He fails to realise the trauma happening around him until it leads to the death of Ted after ‘the virgin and the water carrier’ are caught together ‘two bodies moving like one’. Unlike Leo, who Marcus his friend is nice too, Stephen suffers a worse oppression as he’s manipulated and pressured by his own friend his age Keith. Like Leo he feels like ‘a misfit everywhere’ as he comments that ‘he doesn't quite fit with the pigtailed Geest girls and the oil –stained Avery boys’, but he however still aspires to be part of the clan like Leo bus still acknowledges and accepts the fact that ‘he never will’.Unlike Leo, Stephen’s low class was known to everyone and he couldn’t even dare to keep it a secret. He was ‘the other ranks’ and unlike Leo, although he felt the class difference he was still ‘grateful to be so’. He went to a different school complete ly from Keith with uniforms ‘socially coded for ease of reference’. He lived in a ‘semi-detached' house attached to ‘the pinchers' making the whole situation ‘even more shameful'. While his friend Keith lived in a house with ‘white wicket gates' with a ‘neat red brick path that curves through rose beds'.He felt like he wasn’t even worthy of the Hayward’s as he says ‘The Hayward’s were impeccable and yet they tolerated him’ and Mrs Hayward’s ‘incomprehensible niceness’. Stephen like Leo, has the colour ‘green’ associated with them as Stephen admits ‘everything about me was plainly green'. Stephen didn’t dare to go against Keith’s orders as Keith ‘was the leader’ and he ‘was the led’. Stephen’s feeling of social inferiority to Keith allows Keith to dominate and intimidate Keith’s life as Stephen sees Keith as ‘t he first in a whole series of dominant figures whose disciple I became’.Stephen sees himself as the ‘undersized boy with the teapot ears following his powerful friend open mouthed and credulous’. Stephen is much more different from Leo as he doesn’t hide who he is and isn’t ashamed of who he is. Both boys however are associated with symbols. Stephen is associated with the ‘Privet’ as Leo is associated with ‘Mercury’. Both boys are completely unaware of sex and it’s this lack knowledge that makes Leo not realize what ‘spooning’ is and Stephen misinterprets the ‘X’s’ and ‘! ’ in Mrs Hayward’s diary. Both boys become messengers for illicit love affairs and don’t realise what they’re been used for.Being naive and snobbish like Leo, Keith fails to realize the relationship between Uncle Peter and Mrs Hayward. He doesn’t realize why a man will be in t he barns. This naivety prevents him from realising Mrs Hayward may have gone into the barns even as he says ‘there’s only one way to go and that’s left, if you go right it leads to the tracks’. He doesn’t think Mrs Hayward for one minute will go into the tracks. When they realize Mrs Hayward might have go into a house in the lanes, he says they couldn’t pursue their project ‘Germans we might be able to deal with, these people we certainly can’t’.He didn’t realise he was German and even detested the thought a German as it was during the war time and being German in Britain at that point would be a sign of betrayal and a huge deal. Both boys heavily affected by class, and sexual awakening lead them to events that affect them throughout their lives and see the need to reconcile their past with their future as Leo says ‘the facts of life were a mystery to me’. Their lack of knowledge can't be totally blamed on them but rather the times and conditions they lived in.They lived in a society where even girls could grow into women and not know where children were given birth to from or know what awaited them on their wedding night. Children were forbidden to know nor talk about Sex. They were not allowed to know a lot of things. It was like a society with an ‘adult world' and a children's one because knowledge in the society then, was a package combined with loss of innocence. Just like Stephen begins to know more and starts seeing the path ahead as ‘darker tunnels' and no longer ‘remote blue horizons'.However, this lack of knowledge leaves both boys lives in a complete shatter especially that of Leo. The Climax of the novel, leaves Leo ‘like a train going through a series of tunnels; sometimes in the dark not knowing'. He lives with himself thinking he was responsible for the death of Ted Burgees as he comments that ‘the tidings of Ted's suicide came to me vo icelessly as ‘he haunted' him. He lives thinking ‘in destroying the belladonna' he ‘had also destroyed Ted' and ‘perhaps destroyed himself'. He was left a lonely man ‘sitting alone' in a ‘drab flowerless room'.While Stefan was left with a marriage ‘that was never quite a real marriage'. With ‘worse troubles than anyone's ever had before'. He thinks he was responsible for the death of Uncle peter as he struggles to figure out where he belonged. Hartley used the social structure of his main protagonist Leo, who admits that he had ‘destroyed Ted’ as a vehicle for expressing the power of the class structure over the society's actions with Ted serving as the scape goat shooting himself after the findings of Mrs Maudsley in the outhouses to avoid the societal disgrace and spare Marian the embarrassment.Ted was oppressed by his lack of social status as Denys doesn’t fail to say ‘we don’t know him socially of c ourse’ and his lack of money as he rents his land from Lord Trimingham. Hartley makes reference to the class range in the society using the complex sub-textual elements of the interaction between the main characters especially with he relationship between Marian Maudsley and Ted Burges . Marian states that ‘Ted and I were lovers’ their ‘love was a beautiful thing’ but yet they couldn’t be together due to the distinction in their social class and her expectations to marry an aristocrat.The villagers admire them and feel ‘if it wasn’t for the difference what a handsome pair they’ll make’. Ted Burgees isn’t ashamed to tell anyone about his low class as he admits to Leo ‘I’m a kind friend of hers’ but doesn’t hesitate to say ‘but not the sort she goes about with’. However, he feels insecure about it and looks at ‘himself critically all over’ and even Leo notices that ‘the more clothes he put on, the less he looked himself’. Ted seemed to have been a comfortable man before any illicit love affair with Marian as the villagers see his change as a sudden one and ask ‘what’s come over Ted? To be shy with ladies’? This implies he was a lady’s man and was content with his farm life as he admits ‘I’m not what you call a gentle-man farmer’. Trimingham, on the other hand, was ‘a Lord’ whose clothes, unlike Ted's, ‘seem to be a part of him’. He’s an aristocrat and a gentle-man who teaches Leo ‘nothing is ever a lady’s fault’. Unlike Ted, he had ‘an ambiguous social position’ as he was penniless yet his aristocracy strengthened his social status and was seen as an ‘emblem of the golden age’.Trimingham however, despite all these odds, was oppressed by his lack of money and the defects of his face from the ‘Boe r war’. He was ‘dreadfully ugly’ and we learn from Marcus that ‘he doesn’t like you to feel sorry for him’. Hartley contrasts his hideous ‘sick shaped scar that ran from his eye to the corner of his mouth’ with the image of war making him ‘a hero with a background of the hospital and battlefield’. Trimingham is the gentle, chivalrous representative of a dying tradition, bearing the scars of an ‘impersonal’ war.A complex symbol, he is ‘two-sided, like Janus’, like the war, conflict and suffering for which in some ways he stands—entities which can be evil, the result of passion and pride and ‘the fear of losing face’, but which can also be good, the nurturer of strength, humility, self-discipline, compassion, the gaiety having the ‘background of hospital and battle-field’. Hugh is two-sided like the traditions of the British nobility, like the blind-in-one-eye c hivalry which insists that nothing can ever be a lady’s fault, like the patriotism which sends soldiers off to kill the Boer, who’s ‘not a bad feller’ but who happens to be the present target.When Leo first sees Trimingham he immediately concludes it’ll be ‘impossible to like him’ and so doesn’t expect Marian to marry him after he learns from Marcus that ‘Mama wants Marian to marry him’. His lack of money makes him still go forward to marry Marian even after ‘the virgin and the water-carrier are caught together, ‘two bodies moving like one’. Marian still becomes ‘Lady Trimingham’. He was so deeply oppressed that even Leo comments that ‘His life could never have been a good life'.He was a respectable man from a family of aristocracy, yet had no money pushing him to still marry a woman who had become a figure of shame to get himself some money. Also because of his strong belief tha t ‘nothing was ever a ladys fault' Uncle Peter on the other hand, ‘who’s very absence, was a kind of presence’ was a man with no status in the society living beyond the edges of civilisation but his presence lied in ‘the glory of Uncle Peter’ a RAF pilot meant to be flying bombing missions over Germany.War plays a role in both novels as Frayn and Hartley use Uncle Peter and Trimingham to further show the effects of war on societal men. In Uncle Peter’s case however, it led to his destruction and the end of his life. It was his major source of oppression as he now had to live in the lowest of the lowest, the Barns. Unlike Trimingham who’s still fully idolised and idealised even much more after the war, we can’t say the same about Uncle Peter.Indeed he was idolised and his iconic status still remains with Auntie Dee, as Stephen tells us the untidiness of their house ‘glowed with a kind of sacred light, like a saint and his attributes in a religious painting’. This image is a different man from the man in the barns who is now ‘that low in the table of human precedence’. This painting is nothing close to that of war hero. As the narrator unveils the mystery we find out he has betrayed his country, deserted his duties under the claim ‘you’re up there in the darkness five hundred miles away from home and suddenly the darkness is in you as well’.The man at the Barns and Uncle Peter are two different beings. One is a desperate, sick broken, deserted individual and the other whose eagle on his hat ‘spreading its gilt wings protectively’ over the children of the Close. Should Uncle Peter have tried to rejoin the society, he would have brought shame and disgrace upon his family as Uncle Peter's iconic status was what reflected on Auntie Dee as even their untidy house ‘glowed with a kind of scared light, like a saint and his attributes in a religiou s painting'. He is oppressed by the war effects and love as Trimingham and Ted.In his own case, he has married the wrong sister and at the same time gone from being a hero, to a man ‘that low in the table of human precedence’. He has nothing to offer the woman he loves like Ted who has nothing to offer Marian other than love. He has but a map with the one word ‘Forever’. He lives with images of the war fully fresh in his head saying ‘you can't think, you can't move, Everything's drowned by this great scream of terror in the darkness' as he struggles to close his mind to the memory by using second person, refusing to acknowledge them as his own experience.Like Leo is traumatised by the death of Ted, as he claims ‘the tidings of Ted’s suicide came to me voicelessly’, and ‘haunted me’, Uncle Peter lives with the trauma of the war and describes it as ‘blood-red velvet in the crown above the eagle’. He describe s his plight and says it ‘gets a bit leak, lying here and likens himself to a ‘dicky engine’. Uncle Peter deeply oppressed by the war, explains his plight to Stephen saying ‘you start playing some game, and you’re the brave one, you’re the great hero,‘But the games goes on and on, and it gets more and frightening’ and unfortunately for Uncle Peter the end result is death.His death remains ambiguous as we can’t ascertain if he killed himself like Ted, or if he was killed or perhaps had an accident. Marian Maudsley a beautiful ‘godess' from Brandham hall an upper middle classed family in late-Victorian England with her ‘hair bright with sunshine' and ‘pale rose-pink' face. She has so many social expectations from both her family and the society. Best of all she's expected to make a ‘good marriage'. It was like she was ‘the climax, the key to the whole pattern'. She was in the middle of a cross bat tle with her emotions.Torn between the man she ‘must marry' to give her and her family the aristocracy they desire and the man who she shared a ‘ beautiful thing' and believed ‘were made for each other'. Marian was tough like her mother as they were ‘like two steel threads crossing each other', but ‘her face reflected all the misery she had been going through'. She was oppressed by her social class and expectations, her Love for Ted and like her mother, she's expected to be a good hostess, moral, and keep her emotions and family under control by marrying Trimingham.However, Marian is a very deceptive character as she lies to her mother on her seeing someone in Norwich as she hurriedly said ‘Not a cat; we were hard at it all the time'. She also thinks she can marry Trimingham and carry on with her affair with Ted. Being the ‘virgin of the zodiac', associated with the ‘Attropa Belladonna'. She was a beautiful creature yet poisonous. So w as the Attropa Belladonna as leo says ‘ I knew that every part of it was poisonous, but I knew that it was beautiful'. Marian was a cruel and heartless character to an extent.She was a ‘snob' as Leo towards Trimingham on several occasions. She knew fully well there was no future for her and Ted and is fully aware she must marry Trimingham. She says to Leo ‘I cant' when Leo asks her why she cant marry Ted and admits to him that She ‘must marry' Trimingham. She's a selfish character, as Ted has scarified all he has for her, he rents his farm from Trimingham and knows he can loose it and is willing to take that risk. She however, takes no serios risk as she has her eyes set on aristocracy.She lures him into deceit which leaves the young man dead and she ends up as ‘Lady Trimingham'. She uses Leo as ‘the Go-Between' between her and Ted and still calls the young boy names like ‘shylock', she tells her brother Marcus that green is a suitable color for Leo. She takes advantage of the love Trimingham has for her as she threatens that she ‘wont marry him if Ted goes' and is willing to go as far as saying that ‘Blackmail's a game two can play at'. Marian sees Ted's suicide as weakness and tells Leo ‘Ted is as weak as water'.Marian is sometimes nice to Leo, ut however, all her niceness towards him always had a motive behind it. She takes him to Norwich so she can get the chance to see Ted, she buys him a bicycle to make the message delivery faster between her and Ted. However, it could be argued that it was all out of frustration. Her eyes showed that ‘she couldn't trust herself to speak', and had ‘a hard bed' to lay on. Marian Maudsley was ‘the climax' of the whole story. She was responsible for Ted's death and the calamity that befell Leo. She was still selfish even at old age not to admit to her faults.She continued to live in her self-deception and somehow made herself believe she was still a popular important figure in the hall telling Leo ‘People come in shoals; I almost have to turn them from the door; Everyone knows about me'. Her grandson is left to suffer the consequences of her actions. Michael Frayn uses imagery, metaphor, and irony to present Mrs. Hayward in different ways. Through these techniques, Frayn dramatically and beautifully contrasts Mrs. Hayward's calm, composed manner at the start of the novel with her serious, emotionally distraught side. Mrs.Hayward who is introduced with the six letters ‘My mother is a German Spy', a character of ‘grace and serenity' always cheerful. She's presented as an elegant and respectable character like Mrs. Maudsley and Marian who are under pressure but cant show it. She was almost a perfect being to the extent that even her chickens ‘lived irreproachably elegant lives, parading haughtily about a spacious kingdom'. However, Mrs. Hayward was oppressed by her social expectations to always keep a hi gh chin and her house in order and It becomes part of her ‘to conceal her true nature' . Also by her husband Mr.Hayward whose character is a bully inflicting pain on his wife that even ‘in the heat of summer' she still wears a ‘cravat pinned high around her neck'. It can be argued she did this to hide the bruises inflicted on her by her violent husband' Mrs. Hayward cant leave her marriage because once she got married to mr. Hayward, being in that period, all her rights , properties and even her identity ceased to exist. By law she was under the complete and total supervision of her husband. Mr. Hayward carefully watches is wife and this is why she has to send Stephen to carry a message to Uncle Peter.A woman was ‘Barred by law and custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of marriage'. She keeps a diary with ‘X's and â₠¬Ëœ! ‘s' representing her period and sex life. We know she has a distant relationship with her husband, and seems vaguely scared of him, so who she's having sex with is untold. Later on, we see she has ‘Uncle Peter in her bosom' perhaps the ‘X's' indicated his reciprocated love. Like Marian, she cant be with the man she loves.

Friday, September 13, 2019

The Effect of Clinical Simulation on Student Self-Efficacy in learning Dissertation - 1

The Effect of Clinical Simulation on Student Self-Efficacy in learning - Dissertation Example Cases like these point to the value of clinical simulation in nursing education to help empower such students in being able to handle challenging tasks and situations in their own practice. Clinical simulation is defined by Waxman (2010) as a teaching methodology that provides students with learning experiences closely resembling real-life circumstances that they are likely to encounter in their professional practice. â€Å"Simulated clinical experience requires immersing students in a representative patient-care scenario, a setting that mimics the actual environment with sufficient realism to allow learners to suspend disbelief† (p.29). Specific to nursing education is the utilization of a lifelike high-fidelity manikin which provides a high level of interactivity and realism to nursing students during their simulation proceedings (Jeffries, 2007). The integration of simulation in the nursing education curricula is welcomed by nurse educators as a new and effective method tha t promises to prepare the students better for a future in the nursing profession as competent and confident health workers. Setting up a clinical simulation situation takes much time, planning and effort that draws its information from theories and professional experiences (Waxman, 2010). The complexity of clinical simulation raises the question if it does improve a student’s self-efficacy to be a more efficient professional or leave the student overwhelmed with the probable challenges he or she will face in practice. Self-efficacy is one indicator of an individual’s perception of how well prepared he or she is in being able to successfully accomplish tasks (Bandura, 1977, 1986). Further, Bandura (2004) explains that: â€Å"Efficacy beliefs influence goals and aspirations. The stronger the perceived self-efficacy, the higher the goals people set for themselves and the firmer their commitment to them. Self-efficacy beliefs also determine how obstacles and impediments a re viewed. Those of high efficacy view impediments as surmountable by improvement of self-management skills and perseverant effort† (p. 145). Topic This study will explore clinical simulation as a new method of learning in nursing education. It will discuss the corresponding cognitive and affective processes that the student undergoes during the simulation and follow through if it is indeed an effective strategy in the improvement of student efficacy. The research problem The research problem posed for this study is â€Å"How does clinical simulation affect a student’s self-efficacy in learning in Nursing education?† Background and justification. The current demands of health care necessitate more aggressive training of health care professionals in order to address the growing needs of an industry that is besieged with a multitude of illnesses. More and more diseases come up with symptoms that may be unusual. These may pose a huge challenge to new nurses who have been trained in the traditional approaches of lectures, discussions, role-play and laboratory practice, as these may no longer be effective (Waxman, 2010). A nurse needs to be thoroughly trained in various areas and has amassed enough experiences to be able to carefully discern his or her next moves. Such moves may be crucial to the treatment and safety of the patient and thus,

Thursday, September 12, 2019

The Walt Disney Company Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Walt Disney Company - Research Paper Example The company was later reincorporated in 1929 as Walt Disney Productions, Ltd, and it became a publicly-traded company in 1938. The company became a leading American animation industry before it was diversified into live-action film production, television, and travel. The Walt Disney Company is well known for its Walt Disney Pictures Group and presently it is one of the leading studios in Hollywood. The Walt Disney has formed a $7 billion agreement with Pixar Animation Studios where Steve Jobs is the Chief Executive Officer and 50.6% owner. On the strength of this deal, Jobs will become the largest shareholder at Disney and acquire a major position in its director board. This alliance ensures the collaborated business operation of both Pixar and Disney animation studios. Management experts opine that this acquisition would assist the Disney to continue its dominance in American animation industry. Presently, both the Disney and Pixar possess considerable managerial strengths which off er prosperous future for the integrated operations. This paper will evaluate the scope of the Disney-Pixar alliance by focusing more on different aspects of this acquisition strategy. Steve Jobs’ influence on Walt Disney Steve Jobs who is blessed with an innovative brain is the co-founder of Apple Inc; whereas, the Disney has already gained a good stature among its customers across the globe. The case study indicates that the Disney’s long run success can be mainly attributed to its value creation through diversification. The company’s three dimensional corporate strategies include horizontal and geographic expansion as well as vertical integration. When the Disney takes advantages of all available expansional opportunities or choices of businesses, Steve Jobs tries to develop new products in accordance with changing market interests. Hence, Disney’s repute and Jobs’ technical expertise together would assist the Walt Disney to achieve infinite heig hts in market. On the strength of Job’s long years’ experience in technological innovation, the Disney can minimize its research and development costs to a large extent. In addition, this strategic alliance would assist the Disney to reduce the intensity of market competition and the situation may add value to the company’s future vision and strategies. As Mungenast (2007) points out, the Pixar Animation Studios also possess a series of competitive strengths including CGI-animate feature films developed with PhotoRealistic RenderMan that generates high quality images (p.9). Therefore, the planned acquisition may assist the Disney to increase the number of its potential customer groups. It is known to everyone that Jobs’ relentless effort was the only factor that lifted Pixar and Apple sky-high. If he can bring his innovativeness to this new venture, he will uplift the staid company to a leading laboratory for media convergence. Management of Digital Age C orporation After his astounding success in Apple and Pixar, Steve Jobs sets a new bar for how to manage a Digital Age corporation. As music, movies, and photography go digital, customer interests have switched from complex product structures to elegant simple devices. From the case study, it is clear that Jobs in an obsessive perfectionist who demands total control over each and every aspect of product, from hardware and software to its applications. Jobs’ efficient leadership also contributes to the effective management of a

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

What was the short-term significance of Lord Liverpool's support for Coursework

What was the short-term significance of Lord Liverpool's support for Corn Laws 1815 in affecting support for the Conservative party - Coursework Example On the other end of the spectrum were those who were in favour of free trade and who opposed the Corn Laws as being a government concession to the land barons of Ireland and Britain, against the interest of the poor. The opinion of the latter is perhaps most eloquently voiced by Blake (170, p. 15) who assessed the 1815 corn laws from a distance of more than 150 years as ‘class biased’ †¦ ‘one of the most naked pieces of class legislation in English History, and a clear sign that the capitalist ideal was not going to prevail without a struggle’, a view clearly also later held by the authors of The Black Book.1 Yet, despite the concerns of the parties involved, Lord Liverpool was able to consolidate the opposing political forces within the Houses of Lords and Commons to pass the legislation with a 126 : 26 majority. Predictably, the poorer community fared badly as a result of artificially high corn prices and the next few years were marred by demonstratio ns and riots, followed by the passing of various pieces of repressive legislation in an attempt to control the rioters. Yet, despite these very unpopular measures, support for the conservative party and Liverpool rose - evidenced by the voting numbers during parliamentary business over the next few years. This has generally been attributed to post war problems facing Britain as well as Lord Liverpool’s skills in presenting these to his peers. This explanations is not disputed, however, this paper poses that there is a powerful additional factor, namely that once the corn laws had unleashed unrest, a fear factor developed which did not in fact constitute support for the policies of the conservative party at all but which nevertheless caused members of the parliament to act in semblance. It is also argued that this fear was by far the strongest motivation for giving continued support to the conservative party for as long as there was a danger of further riots. There can be no d oubt that the post-war problems faced by Britain in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars were grave and that the modification to existing corn laws in 1815 can be understood as a short-term measure to avoid catastrophe. Corn laws had been in place in Britain since the 17th century and had basically consisted of a high rate of import duty imposed on a sliding scale to prevent imports and encourage exports, with import duties decreasing as corn prices increased (Fay, C. R., 1932, pp 28-43). This had kept corn prices relatively low and exports high until the middle of the 18th century when, for a variety of reasons, constant corn shortages forced frequent short-term measures to suspend import duties. In 1773 the government conceded that adjustments were required to reflect the real situation and lowered import duties to operate on a sliding scale, diminishing with increases in corn prices (Fay, C. R., 1932, pp 28-43). The underlying policies were to keep the farmers employed and making profits without inflating the price of corn to put it out of reach of the poor. The acts of 1791 and 1804 served a similar purpose, each one lowering the point at which corn import duties ceased. However, the income that was supposed to accrue from the imports did not eventuate as between 1792 and 1815 the price of corn was so high that virtually no import duty was collected (Hilton p. 3). This state of affairs continued with some further adjustments until 1804, by which time the system had been severely destabilized by the Napoleonic wars 1792-1815, which were fought along economic as well as military lines. Thus both parties engaged in economic blockades, bringing horrendous food shortages for England,

Current event paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Current event paper - Essay Example As such, this paper seeks to analyse an article entitled ‘Breeding for improved product quality’ , 22 March, 2013 in a bid to establish its relationship with the above mentioned concept of product quality in real live business terms. A close analysis of the above mentioned article shows that a new multidisciplinary research project involving Teagasc, UCC, UCD and ICBF has underscored to breed for improved product quality in dairy, beef and sheep in Ireland. This comes in the wake of the fact that beef and dairy product are consumed by millions of people in this country hence the aspect of consumer safety and quality should be given the priority it deserves. As such BreedQuality has been awarded a project to ensure that they use state-of-the-art technology to carry out research that is meant to ensure that quality beef and dairy products are offered in the market. The aim of this project is to ensure that the consumers get quality products that do not compromise their health and safety. Research ought to be conducted in order to establish the needs and interests of the customers so as to be in a position to offer quality goods. From the above information, it can be seen that in any business environment, the concept of quality should be given the priority it deserves. This is meant to ensure that the customers get the values from their money. This concept of product quality has been aptly illustrated by the above mentioned news article which shows that the aspect of quality is very important in the beef industry. As shown in the article, research is carried out to enhance improved quality of the products offered by the companies involved in the beef and dairy industries. An organization that is interested in achieving its profit oriented goals should make sure that it maintains